Egypt’s President, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, has ratified a law banning active or former officers from running for the presidency or parliament without the permission of the supreme military council.
They are also banned from joining political parties.
Critics say the law is designed to entrench President Sisi’s power by preventing any other military figures from squaring off against him.
In 2018, the former military chief-of-staff, Sami Anan, was arrested after the military accused him of seeking to run in the presidential election without permission.
The army is highly visible in Egypt, with all but two presidents having military backgrounds since the country became a republic.
The new law will also see military advisers assigned to each of Egypt’s 27 governorates.