Nutrition and osteoporosis are closely linked. If you’re not getting the right nutrients, whether in your diet or through supplements, you’re putting yourself at greater risk for osteoporosis. But just what nutrients should you be getting to help fight osteoporosis, and how should you be getting them?

Although osteoporosis is a disease as old as humanity itself, technological advances and scientific progress has identified almost classify it as a disease of recent times. Is a reduction in bone mass: the loss of bone structure, which determines that it becomes more and more fragile, facilitating the occurrence of fractures resulting from falls, bumps or even spontaneously. It affects both sexes, although it may describe today as a field almost exclusively of women, since the risk of getting it is up to seven times higher than in men.

The most important nutrients for fighting osteoporosis are calcium and vitamin D. Calcium is a key building block for your bones, while vitamin D is the “key” that unlocks the door to your bones and allows them to absorb calcium.

The two go hand in hand: if you don’t get enough D, it won’t matter how much calcium you get, because your bones can’t absorb it properly. But if you don’t get enough calcium, there’s nothing for the vitamin D to help your bones absorb.

Here are recommendations for how much calcium and vitamin D you need at every age:

* Young children 1-3 years old should get 700 milligrams (mg) of calcium a day.

* Children 4-8 years old should get 1,000 mg per day.

* Teenagers should get 1,300 mg of calcium a day.

* Adults up to age 70 should get 1,000 mg per day. Women 51 and over should get 1,200 mg/day.

* Women and men 71 and over should get 1,200 mg per day.

To “unlock” that calcium, the National Academy of Sciences recommends 600 international units (IU) of vitamin D per day from age 1 through age 70 and 800 IU after age 70. But some experts are now saying we need even more vitamin D.

Some osteoporosis experts say that we should be getting 800 to 1,200 IU of vitamin D per day. This is particularly important since the primary source of natural vitamin D — exposure to sunlight — carries the potential risk of skin cancer. As more of us slather on sunscreen and stay in the shade, we need to make sure we get enough vitamin D from other sources.

And vitamin D may do more to protect you from osteoporosis than just help you absorb calcium.

“Particularly in older individuals, vitamin D deficiency makes you more likely to fall down,” says Siris, director of the Toni Stabile Osteoporosis Center at Columbia University Medical Center. “If you get enough vitamin D, you not only improve your calcium, but you’re less likely to fall and get a fracture.”

To strengthen bones and prevent osteoporosis, you can get calcium and vitamin D from your diet, supplements, or both. What’s most important is that you get them. But if you can, it’s best to get these nutrients in the food you eat and the beverages you drink.

Why? First, because it’s easier to remember. You may not take a pill every day, but you eat every day.

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